Impact fees are one-time user fees on new development. They must be reasonably related to the actual additional costs of serving a new development. They are based on a standard formula and a predetermined fee schedule. In 2019, the City of Portland conducted an updated Impact Fee Study with the Consultant TischlerBise, Inc. The initial Impact Fee Study included roads, police, fire, and parks, but was trimmed back to include police, fire and parks only. The impact fee charged for police, fire and parks are held in individual accounts and used to cover the needs in those departments based on new development within the City of Portland.